what is data transmission ? half duplex full duplex Types of Network Type of topologies

Direction of Transmissions Flow - Simplex, Half Duplex Full Duplex, Types of Network - LAN, WAN, MAN etc. Topologies of LAN - Ring, Bus, Star, Mesh and Tree topologies. 

Sharing of data, hardware from one computer to another is called communication. For communicating in the computer, there should be networking between them, ie they should be connected by some means.

It is necessary to have the following component to connect the two computers.

1. Two PC with Networking operating System

2 . Network interface card (NIC) or LAN Card

3. Protocol (Rule of Networking)

4. Media

After this, all the devices can be connected together and communication can be done between those computers.

Flow of Data Transmission Technology:

There are three types of this technology.

1. Simplex Communication: - In this communication one End only sends Data (Signal), and the other End only receives Signal. It is called Simplex Communication. Examples of this are TV, Radio.

2. Half Duplex Communication: - In this communication, both can send to the End Signal, and can receive the Signal. Both hands can send Signal neither at the same time (simultaneously), and can receive neither Signal. When one end sends a signal. So at that signal time, the second end receives the signal. Called half Duplex. If both were sent together and sent to Signal. Are. They collide, and Signal is destroyed.

Like Walky talky is an example of this.

3. Full Duplex Communication: - In this communication both End Signal can send and receive signals at the same time. Full duplex is called communication. Such as mobile, internet, chatting etc.

Data Communication Technique: - This technology is of three types.

  • Unicast: - It is one to one communication, that is, communication is done with one computer at a time. is called unicast communication.

  • Multicast: - This is one to one (group) communication, that is, communication is done with one group at a time. It is called Multicast Communication.

  • Broadcast: - This is one to all communication, that is, from all computers at one time. Communication is done. It is called Broadcast Communication.

                                        Type of Network

There are three types of networks based on physical and geographical area.

  • LAN.
  • WAN
  • MAN

LAN Network: - Its full name is Local Area Network. Two or more computers and other devices are connected to it. It is limited to one room or one building. It is a basic network. Computers are connected in different ways according to the requirement in the lane network. Computer among themselves. The addition process is called topology.

what is data transmission  half duplex full duplex Types of Network  Type of topologies


It is limited to one room or one building. 
Its data transfer speed is fast. 
It does not have to hire external networks. 
Data is safe in this. 

It is easy to maintain.

WAN Network: - Its full name is Wide Area Network. It is a large network in terms of area. This network is not limited to one building. In this, the lines of another company are hired. It will be expensive. Is nautical. It consists of lane network. Through this, two different offices are linked together. In this, data is sent and received securely.

Features :
It is connected through VPN connection. Its full name is Virtual Private Network.

MAN Network: - Its full name is Metropolitan Area Network. Through this network, one city is connected to another city or another country to another. It is a high-speed network. It is made up of lane and lane network, in which satellite and fiber optical are used only to connect the network in it. Different types of network devices are used. It is difficult to maintain. To different companies. It happens through cooperation.

Components of LAN

  • Computer
  • NIC (Network Interface Card) or LAN Card
  • Protocol
  • Media (Cable or Connector)

Computer: -: A computer is connected in a LAN, ie it is the main unit of the network. NIC is its full name Network Interface card. With the help of this, one computer is connected to another. Is added. It is the most important part of the network.

Protocol: - There are some rules in the computer for getting communication between different networks. Which is called a protocol. These rules are in the form of software.

Media media refers to the cable and connector in the network.


The method of connecting computers and the data flow in it is called topology. It is of two types .

1. Physical: - In this topology, computers or devices are physically added.

2 . Logical: - The process of data flow in the network is called logical topology.

                                  Type of Topology

1. Bus Topology: - In Bus Topology, a backbone only is used, to which all computer and network devices are connected. All devices are connected in a serial order. Only at the beginning and end of it is a special type of device called Terminator. It controls Signal. Coxial cable is used as the backbone cable. It uses Half Duplex and Broadcast Technology to send data.

  •  It is easy to install. 
  •  Less cable is used. 
  •  This easily removes the network problem. 
  •  The network continues to operate when one of the devices malfunctions.

The entire network stops working when the 
  • Back Bone Cable malfunctions.  
  • Broadcasting is used. Which affects performance. 
  • Large network cannot be built. 
  • It has a maximum speed of 10 Mbps, which is very low.

what is data transmission  half duplex full duplex Types of Network  Type of topologies

2 . Star Topology: - In this topology all the computers are connected with the help of a host computer or network device.

what is data transmission  half duplex full duplex Types of Network  Type of topologies

It costs less.

  • When a computer (Node) goes bad, the entire network does not go bad.
  • Its data transfer speed is fast.
  • You can easily add a new computer to it.
  • Its maintenance is easy and cheap.


  • When the host computer malfunctions, the entire network goes bad.

3. Tree Topology: - It is a mixed topology. It consists of two or more topologies. . There is a Back Bone Cable to which all the networks are connected. Due to its shape like a tree, it is called Tree Topology.

what is data transmission  half duplex full duplex Types of Network  Type of topologies

Benefit :

  • This adds to the larger network.


  • It is difficult to make.
  • It is expensive.
  • It is difficult to improve.

4. Ring Topology: - All computers are added to the ring shape. The computers used in it. in this . Other other network devices are not used. It is used in small networks.

what is data transmission  half duplex full duplex Types of Network  Type of topologies

Benefit :

  • Data is safe in this.
  • It is a simple and inexpensive topology.


  • Its speed is slow.
  • Larger networks cannot be created with this.
  • There is a fear of collision while sending data.

5. Mesh Topology: - In this topology, a computer or network device would be connected to many interconnections. is . In this, one node is connected to all other nodes. Is called mesh topology. It is used in server form.


  • The network is never down.

  • This is expensive network.
  • It is a complex network, it is difficult to establish.

Post a Comment