What is a Operating systems Functions Multi programming Multiprocessing programming Assembly High level 4GL

Syllabus: Operating Systems - Functions, Types - Batch, Single, Multi programming. Multiprocessing Programming languages - Machine, Assembly, High Level, 4GL

Operating system: - Operating system is a system software. This is a control program. Its brief. The name is OS, which communicates between the user and the computer machine. Operating System and Computer Hardware a. Complement the other. A computer without an operating system cannot be imagined. This is the head of the family. It happens like Just as the head of the family controls the entire house. Similarly, the operating system controls the computer. The operating system is the program between the computer hardware and the user. This user's instructions. Reaches the computer in the language of the computer, and gives the result of the computer to the user in the user's language, that is, it is a master program. The first program is loaded into memory as soon as the computer starts. Then another after this. Other programs are loaded into the computer.


What is a Operating systems Functions Multi programming Multiprocessing programming Assembly High level 4GL



After the operating system, other other application programs are installed in the computer.

Function of operating system:

Operating System Computer has many functions. But the main function is control and management.

Some of the major functions of the operating system are as follows.


What is a Operating systems Functions Multi programming Multiprocessing programming Assembly High level 4GL

1. The main function of 0s is to control and manage the hardware and software in the computer.

 2 . Where there is more than one user in a server computer, the operating system checks the validity of the user, whether the user name and password are correct.

3. The operating system performs file management in the computer, where to save the file in memory, and permits transferring the files from one place to another.

4. The operating system performs the function of memory management. Under this, system programs, data programs and data programs are stored in main memory.

 5. Input Output Management Under this, the input output devices are managed and controlled by the operating system itself.

6. The list of tasks to be done in the computer is prepared by the operating system itself, which task will be done when and how.

7. Processor Management Under this, various tasks are assigned to processors, which are completed by a computer system.

8. The operating system communicates between the computer hardware and the user.

9. The operating system manages security in the computer.

10. The operating system allows new software and new hardware to be installed in the computer. Apart from this, many other important tasks are done by the operating system.

11. Generating various error messages.

12. To establish mutual understanding between various commands and instructions.

13. Conducting various activities.

14. Maintaining and managing internal time clock.

15. Automatic job changes by some special control programs.

Type of operating system (operating system types):

Operating systems are of the following types.

1. Single User System: - Single User System is the operating system in which only one program is executed at a time. In earlier times most operating systems were single user operating systems. The problem of this operating is that it could not run more than one program at a time. That's why programs in this system were arranged in a line. A computer system does not immediately recognize a program unless it has no identification with it, so it is very important to have information together. So that the program can be identified. Other peripheral devices also ask for these information to implement the program. All these instructions are written in a special job control language that the operating system understands.

2 . Multi Programming: - Operating system is a group of specialized programs, which perform computer functions. , And speeds up computer actions by transferring one program to another. The computer monitors its own actions with the help of the operating system, and automatically assigns work to other application programs. It is machine understandable for all program instructions. makes . Apart from the operation and control of all the activities of the computer, it also transfers the data entered by the human and the result to be output from one device to another. Does. Nowadays, many operating systems allow to do many tasks simultaneously. Whom multi. This is called programming. In other words, two or more programs are to be executed by the same computer at the same time, the same is called multi programming. Certain functions in some multi-programming systems. Are implemented. They are called Multi Programming with Fixed Tasks. And where the number of works is uncertain. There it is called Multi Programming with Variable Tasks.

3. Multi. Processing: - Multi Processing Word is used to explain a processing. Where two and more processors are connected to each other. In this type of system, instructions from separate and independent programs are executed by more than one processor at the same time, or processors execute different instructions one by one, from the same program. Have received It is the function of the operating system to establish a good synergy between input output and processing capabilities. In this way, we can say that multi-processing can be used by interconnected computers that have two or more CPU's and have the ability to implement different programs simultaneously, from multi-processing to computer performance. Increases. This technique aids parallel processing. In this technology, work is done by another CPU when one CPU malfunctions.

4. Batch Processing: - Batch processing is a very Parana way, through which different programs. Are implemented, and they are used to implement the work at various data processing centers. Is done. This technique of operating system relies on the principle of automatic job change. . The same principle is provided by operating systems. In this type of operating system, each user prepares his program offline. On completion of this work, they are submitted to the data processing center. A computer operator collects all the programs that punch on a card. is . When the operator collects the programs, then it loads the batch into the computer and then executes those programs one by one. Finally, the operator obtains the printed output of those functions. , And those outputs are passed on to the respective users. We also call batch processing, sequential, offline, offline and compiled job processing.

Language means that through which we express our thoughts. This group of words is called language. Which has some meaning. The language in which a person expresses his thoughts to make a computer work is the 'user language', and the language that the computer understands is called computer language or binary or machine language. To convert the user language into machine language a system software is required, which is called Translator. It converts user language into machine language and machine language into user language.

There are three types depending on the development of the computer.

1. Machine Language: - It is the language which the computer understands. It is also called binary language. goes . It was used in first generation computers. Programming in it is difficult. Programs written in it run at high speed, because it is processed directly. It did not require any translator software. Its output also comes in this language. Programming in it is difficult. Error Finding is difficult in this. Based on this machine. Language is.

 01010101010101010111100000

2 . Assembly Language: - Assembly language 3 was developed to overcome the shortcomings of machine language. In this, numerical code was used instead of binary language. Those were easy to remember. Assembler was used to convert these codes into machine language which is a system software. Programming in this language is easier than machine language.

Error Finding is easy in this, and it is easy to improve the program. It was used for the second generation. Was done in the computer. Their programs were earlier converted to machine language, so that their speed is less than machine language. It is machine based language. For this, other software is required. Code: - HLT, ADD, CLA, SUB, STA etc. 3 DEF ONN9 ZAXM6

3. High Level Language: - High level to remove the deficiencies of the assembly language. Language was developed. In this, instructions were given in English language in computer instead of code. Which made the program easy to understand and write. It is not a machine-based language. In this, the Compiler and Interpreter is used to convert the program into machine language. Nowadays this language is being used for programming in computers. This language is divided into two classes on the basis of function.

1. Processor oriented language

2 . Object oriented language

Benefit :

1. Machine Independents: - To do programming in this language of a particular computer. Is not required. You can create a program on any computer and run it on any computer.

2. Easy to learn and use: - English is used in this language. Which makes it easy to learn and use.

3. Fewer Error: - There is very little mistake in it. If they are, then they are easily removed and it is cheaper to do programming. Because it does not require any special hardware.

4. Better documentation: - It is easy to do documentation of the program. 

Shortage:
* Lower Efficiency

* Less flexibility

Some High level Languages:

1. FORTRAN: - Its full name is Formula Translation Language. It was developed by Engineer John Backus of IBM Company to translate the formula in 1957.

2. COBOL: - Its full name is Common Businus oriented language. It was developed in 1959 for commercial purposes.

3. BASIC: - Its full name is Beginers all purposes symbolic instruction code. Its development Was done in 1964.

4G Languages: - Languages ​​which are used in fourth generation computers are called 4G languages. . Such as Pascal, C, C + + etc. These languages ​​do not depend on the machine. This object is oriented. Programming in. It is easy to do.

 Compiler: - Compiler is a system software. It is a Translator, a high-label language program. Converts to machine language, and then machine language code is sent for processing. The result that comes after processing is converted into user language. It converts the entire program together into machine code. .

 Interpreter: - Interpreter is a System Software. It is a translator that converts high level language programs into machine language. It changes the machine language in each statement, and by running it, it displays the result immediately. It is slower than Compiler. It occupies less space in memory. Code in it. There is no need to repeat.

Assembler: - Assembler is a System Software, it is a Translator. Which converts assembly language program into machine language and machine language into assembly language.

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